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J Acupunct Res > Volume 32(4); 2015 > Article
Lee, Lee, Ha, Kim, Lee, Lee, Kim, Kim, Kim, Bae, Kim, Suh, Byun, Park, and Kim: The effects of exposure at room temperature to pharmacopuncture within a syringe: an investigation of changes in microbiological safety※
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The main aim of this study is to evaluate changes in the microbiological safety of pharmacopuncture exposed to room temperature for an elapsed period of time.


The four most frequently used pharmacopuncture products were stored in syringes at room temperature at three different hospitals for 24 hours and 48 hours respectively and they were compared with pharmacopuncture products stored in vials through a sterility and microbial limited test.


Storage forms and duration of exposure to room temperature did not show significant difference in bacterial or fungal contamination which was confirmed by the sterility and microbial limited test.


Pharmacopuncture products stored in syringes at room temperature for 24 hours and 48 hours demonstrated their safety in terms of lack of microbiological contamination.

Fig. 1
Sterility test result of Shinbaro pharmacopuncture
Fig. 2
Sterility test result of Hwangryun-Hae-Dok-tang pharmacopuncture
Fig. 3
Sterility test result of Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture
Fig. 4
Sterility test result of Bee venom pharmacopuncture
Fig. 5
Limited test(Bacteria) result of Shinbaro pharmacopuncture
Fig. 6
Limited test(Fungi) result of Shinbaro pharmacopuncture
Fig. 7
Limited test(Bacteria) result of Hwangryun-Hae-Dok-tang pharmacopuncture
Fig. 8
Limited test(Fungi) result of Hwangryun-Hae-Dok-tang pharmacopuncture
Fig. 9
Limited test(Bacteria) result of Jung-songouhyul pharmacopuncture
Fig. 10
Limited test(Fungi) result of Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture
Fig. 11
Limited test(Bacteria) result of Bee venom pharmacopuncture
Fig. 12
Limited test(Fungi) result of Bee venom pharmacopuncture
Table 1
Strain and Criteria for Media Probability Test
Strain used medium Criteria
Clostridium sporogenes
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureus
Thioglycollate medium Certain Growth of Strain
Aspergillus brasiliensis
Bacillus subtilis
Candida albicans
Tryptic soy agar
Table 2
Strain and Criteria for Validation Test
Strain used medium Criteria
Clostridium sporogenes
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureus
Thioglycollate medium Same Growth between Control group
Aspergillus brasiliensis
Bacillus subtilis
Candida albicans
Tryptic soy agar
Table 3
Test Result
Sterility test Limited test
0 h 24 h 48 h 0 h 24 h 48 h
Dae jeon SBO
Bu cheon SBO
Hae un dae SBO


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