Acupunct Search

CLOSE


J Acupunct Res > Volume 32(3); 2015 > Article
Park, Yang, Park, and Lee: Needling Depth of Cheonchu(ST25) with Computed Tomography: a Retrospective Study※
See the Original "".

Abstract

Objectives:

The aim of this study is to investigate the safe needling depth of Cheonchu(ST25) retrospectively by using an abdomen abdomen computed tomography(CT), and to analyze the correlation between needling depth and the characteristics of the subjects.

Methods:

We marked spots 50 mm away from both sides of the umbilicus in the abdomen CT and measured the vertical distance to the parietal peritoneum from the skin surface as well as waist circumference. Correlations between measured depth of Cheonchu(ST25) and variables such as age, gender and waist circumference were analyzed.

Results:

Average depth of the Cheonchu(n = 90) was 3.21±0.87 cm, the minimum was 1.31 cm and the maximum was 5.63 cm. A definite positive correlation was noted between needling depth and waist circumference and a significant difference was observed in needling depth according to waist circumference groups.

Conclusions:

Needling depth of Cheonchu(ST25) varied depending on the patient’s waist circumference; safe needling depth of Cheonchu(ST25) measured by abdomen CT is 1.31~5.63 cm.

Fig. 1
Flow chart of the abdomen CT selection process
acupunct-32-3-61f1.gif
Fig. 2
Needling depth measurement of Cheonchu (ST25)
acupunct-32-3-61f2.gif
Fig. 3
Waist circumference measurement
acupunct-32-3-61f3.gif
Table 1
Needling Depth Comparison of Men and Women in Cheonchu (ST25) According to Age Group
Age Men Women Total
N Depth(cm) N Depth(cm) N Depth(cm) p-value*
~ 29 2 4.67 ± 0.74 1 4.68 3 4.67 ± 0.53
~ 39 7 3.18 ± 0.71 4 3.92 ± 1.24 11 3.45 ± 0.95
~ 49 18 3.25 ± 0.69 5 3.38 ± 0.97 23 3.27 ± 0.74
~ 59 11 3.09 ± 0.80 2 3.19 ± 0.26 13 3.10 ± 0.74
~ 69 8 2.29 ± 0.69 5 3.47 ± 0.80 13 2.74 ± 0.92
~ 79 7 3.00 ± 1.06 10 3.43 ± 0.64 17 3.25 ± 0.84
~ 89 3 2.48 ± 1.14 6 3.20 ± 0.76 9 2.96 ± 0.90
99 1 3.78 1 3.78
Total 56 3.05 ± 0.88 34 3.48 ± 0.79 90 3.21 ± 0.87 0.001
p-value 0.013 0.727 0.036

Value are mean ± standard deviation.

* p<0.05 by student t-test in needling depth of men and women.

p<0.05 by one-way ANOVA in needling depth according to age group.

Table 2
Correlations between Age and Needling Depth of Men and Women in Cheonchu (ST25)
Depth
Men Women Total
Age Pearson(Ɣ)* −0.401 −0.202 −0.225
p-value 0.002 0.253 0.002

* p<0.01 by Pearson correlations.

Table 3
Needling Depth Comparison of Men and Women in Cheonchu (ST25) According to Waist Circumference
Waist circumference(cm) Men Women Total
N Depth(cm) N Depth(cm) N Depth(cm)
~ 60 1 2.42 1 2.42
~ 70 6 1.75 ± 0.46 4 2.70 ± 0.35 10 2.13 ± 0.63
~ 80 20 2.59 ± 0.37 12 3.16 ± 0.70 32 2.80 ± 0.58
~ 90 23 3.46 ± 0.61 9 4.06 ± 0.66 32 3.63 ± 0.67
~ 100 6 3.98 ± 0.82 6 3.72 ± 0.64 12 3.85 ± 0.72
~ 110 1 4.94 2 4.14 ± 0.50 3 4.40 ± 0.58
p-value* 0.000 0.005 0.000

Value are mean ± standard deviation.

* p<0.05 by one-way ANOVA in needling depth according to waist circumference.

Table 4
Correlations between Waist Circumference and Needling Depth of Men and Women in Cheonchu (ST25)
Depth
Men Women Total
Waist circumference Pearson(Ɣ)* .826 .553 .677
p-value .000 .001 .000

* p<0.01 by Pearson correlations.

VI.
VI.

References

1. Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society Textbook Compilation Committe. The acupuncture and moxibustion medicine. Gyeonggi: Jipmoondang. 2012:5–17.

2. Chou PC, Chu HY, Lin JG. Safe needling depth of acupuncture points. J Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2011;17(3):199–206.
crossref
3. White A. A cumulative review of the range and incidence of significant adverse events associated with acupuncture. Acupunct Med. 2004;22(3):122–33.
crossref pmid
4. Chen HN, Lin JG, Yang AD, Chang SK. Safe depth of abdominal acupoints in pediatric patients. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2008;16(6):331–5.
crossref pmid
5. Kim JH, Baek TH. Reliability measurement of the ultrasound for safety of the abdominal organs on acupuncturing Sangwan(CV13). J Korea Instit Orient Med Diagn. 2011;15(2):203–14.

6. Duan JX. Operating specifications and safety review on deep acupuncture at Tianshu under CT observation [dissertation]. Beijing: China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2010. Chinese.

7. Byun H, Kang MJ, Jung CY, et al. Determination of safe needling depth via X-ray at TE17(Yifeng) and ST7(Xiaguan). The Acupuncture. 2007;24(6):69–73.

8. Maeng YS, Kwon SK, Jin YJ, Kim DI. A research of the needling depth for gaining Deqi and quality of those sensation - In Chung-wan(CV12) and Kwan-wan(CV4) Loci, often used in Ob&Gy treatment. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2009;22(1):191–202.

9. Duan JX, Liu ZS. Review on the safety of deep acupuncture at Tianshu(ST25). J Acupuncture Research. 2010;35(3):232–5.

10. Zhang W. Evaluation of therapeutic effect and safety of ceep acupuncture at Tianshu(ST25) for treatment of slow transit constipation. J Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2006;47(2):105–7.

11. Zhang W, Liu ZS, Li J. Treatment of 30 patients with colic slow-transport constipation by deep puncture of point Tianshu. Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 2005;24(10):26–7.

12. Meridian & Acupoints Compilation Committee of Korean Orienal Medical Colleges. Details of meridians & acupoints(volume I): a guidebook for college students. Wonju: Yibang. 2009:228–30.

13. Kim DW, Lee SY, Lee CH. The clinical study of colonic transit time stimulated manual acupuncture and electo-acupuncture(ST25, ST37). The Acupuncture. 1998;15(2):311–8.

14. Kang SI, Lim CW, Park WT, So WR, Song MJ, Kim YS. The clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy on Chonchu(ST25) for constipation. The Acupuncture. 2001;18(6):125–34.

15. Frank HN. Atlas of human anatomy. 4th ed. Seoul: Jeongdam. 2007:349.

16. Chen HN, Lin JG, Ying LC, Huang CT, Lin CH. The therapeutic depth of abdominal acupuncture points approaches the safe depth in overweight and in older children. J alternative and complementary medicine. 2009;15(10):1033–7.
crossref
17. Lu J, Li ZD. Discussion on the anatomy of acupoints from the position of acupuncture medicine. J Foreign Med Sci · Trad Chin Med. 1995;17(2):19–23.

18. Liu ZS, Zheng CZ, Zhang W, et al. Observation on the short-term therapeutic effect of deep-needling Tianshu(ST25) on senile constipation. J Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion. 2004;24(3):155–6.

19. Wang CW, Li N, He HB, Lü JQ, Liu ZS. Effect of electroacupuncture of Tianshu(ST25) on the rational symptoms of functional constipation patients and evaluation on its efficacy satisfaction: a single-c enter, prospective, practical and randomized control trial. J Acupuncture Research. 2010;35(5):375–9.

20. Peng WN, Wang L, Liu ZS, et al. Analysis on follow-up efficacy and safety of slow transit constipation treated with individualized deep puncture at Tianshu(ST25): a multi-central randomized controlled trial. J Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion. 2013;33(10):865–9.

21. AJ Norheim, Fonnebo V. Acupuncture adverse effects are more than occasional case reports: results from questionnaires among 1135 randomly selected doctors and 197 acupuncturists. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 1996;4(1):8–13.
crossref
22. Lee YE, Park JE, Hwang JY, Kim WY. Comparison of health risks according to the obesity types based upon BMI and waist circumference in Korean adults: the 1998–2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Korean J Nutr. 2009;42(7):631–8.
crossref


Article and Issues
For this Journal
For Authors
Ethics
Submit Manuscript
Editorial Office
Gil Korean Medical Hospital, Gachon University
Keunumul-Ro, Chung-Ku, Inchoen 22138, Korea
Tel: +82-70-7606-6353,4    Fax: +82-32-232-3334    E-mail: jared@e-jar.org                

Copyright © 2021 by Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society.

Developed in M2PI

Close layer
prev next