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Publishing Ethics Guideline

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JAR adheres completely to the ethical guidelines and best practices published by professional organizations, including Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Journals((http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) from ICMJE and Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA: (http://doaj.org/bestpractice).
The publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an essential building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is a direct reflection of the quality of work of the author and the institutions that support them. Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. It is therefore important to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior.
All authors must meet the authorship criteria of ‘Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals' listed on www.icmje.org. Qualifying for authorship is required for all authors and the order of authorship is to be decided between the coauthors. The authorship credit should be based on substantial contributions to:
  • • Conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;
  • • Drafting of the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and;
  • • Final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet all conditions.

One author should be chosen to act as a corresponding author. The corresponding author will be responsible for the entire communications to/from the Editorial Office, editors and etc. In case of multicenter studies, a corporate author directly responsible for the manuscript should be appointed.
Redundant publication and plagiarism
Attempting to publish substantially similar work more than once without attribution of the original source(s) is considered a redundant publication. Definition of being substantially similar can be explained as follows:
  • • At least one of the authors is common to all reports (it is likely to be plagiarism if there are no common authors);
  • • The subject or study populations are same or similar;
  • • The methodology is typically identical or nearly so and;
  • • The results and interpretation varies little or not at all.

If all or part of the subject population has been reported previously, it should be declared in the Materials and Methods and must be appropriately referenced. In cases where authors are concerned with any potential overlap with published manuscripts or manuscripts being reviewed, the authors must include a letter explaining how the manuscript submitted to JAR significantly differs from other materials. For more information, please refer to ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’ (Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3142758/).
Secondary publication
It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the conditions of secondary publication of the ICMJE Recommendations(http://www.icmje.org/urm_main.html).
Policy on ethical oversight

When the Journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as falsification of data, plagiarism, improprieties of authorship, misappropriation of the ideas of others, violation of generally accepted research practices, material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affection research, inappropriate behavior in relation to misconduct, the resolving process will follow the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The Editorial Board will discuss the suspected cases and reach a decision. We will not hesitate to publish errata, corrigenda, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.

World Association of Medical Editors gives a definition of scientific misconduct and useful overview of the following issues:
Falsification of data

This ranges from fabrication, the deceptive reporting of findings, and the omission of conflicting data to willful suppression and/or distortion of data.

The appropriation of the language, ideas, or thoughts of another without crediting their true source—representing them as one’s own original work.
Improprieties of authorship

The improper assignment of credit, for example, by excluding others, presenting the same material in more than one publication, including individuals as authors who have not made a definite contribution to the work, and publishing or submitting multi-authored publications without the concurrence of all authors.
Misappropriation of the ideas of others

An important aspect of scholarly activity is the exchange of ideas among colleagues. Scholars can acquire novel ideas from others during the process of reviewing grant applications and manuscripts. However, the improper use of such information can constitute fraud. The wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.
Violation of generally accepted research practices

This category includes serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, the improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, and the improper reporting of results.
Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research

This includes but is not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, and willful violations of local regulations and laws involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biological, or chemical materials.
Inappropriate behavior in relation to misconduct

This includes unfounded or knowingly false accusations of misconduct, the failure to report known or suspected misconduct, the withholding of information relevant to a claim, and any kind of misconduct or retaliation against persons involved in an allegation or investigation.

Complaints and appeal
How the journal will handle complaints and appeals; The policy of the journal is primarily aimed at protecting the authors, reviewers, editors, and the publisher of the journal. If not described below, the process of handling complaints and appeals follows the guidelines of the Committee of Publication Ethics available from https://publicationethics.org/appeals.
Who complains or makes an appeal?
Submitters, authors, reviewers, and readers may register complaints and appeals in a variety of cases as follows: falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, duplicate publication, authorship dispute, conflict of interest, ethical treatment of animals, informed consent, bias or unfair/inappropriate competitive acts, copyright, stolen data, defamation, and legal problem. If any individuals or institutions want to inform the cases, they can send a letter to editor For the complaints or appeals, concrete data with answers to all factual questions (who, when, where, what, how, why) should be provided.
Who is responsible to resolve and handle complaints and appeals?
The Editor, Editorial Board, or Editorial Office is responsible for them.
What may be the consequence of remedy?
It depends on the type or degree of misconduct. The consequence of resolution will follow the guidelines of the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE).
Conflict of interest statement
The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors’ interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Research ethics
All manuscripts should be prepared under strict observation of research and publication ethics guidelines recommended by the Council of Science Editors, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Association of Medical Editors. Any study including human subjects or human data must be reviewed and approved by a responsible institutional review board (IRB). For further information on investigations involving human material, please refer to the principles in the Declaration of Helsinki. (https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/)
Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential.
Human and Animal Rights
Animal experiments should also be reviewed by an appropriate committee (IACUC: Institutional Animal Care and use Committee) for the care and the use of animals. Studies involving pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass review of a relevant committee (IBC: Institutional Biosafety Committee). The editor of JAR may request submission of copies of informed consents from human subjects in all studies or IRB approval documents.
Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. Articles covering the use of human samples in research and human experiments must be approved by the relevant review committee. Articles covering the use of animals in experiments must be approved by the relevant authorities.
Published manuscripts become the permanent property of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society, and must not be published elsewhere without written permission. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society. All authors are to thoroughly read and sign "Authorship Responsibility and Copyright Transfer (Journal Publishing Agreement)" form of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society and submit it with the manuscript through the online submission system.

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